Classification of Car Rolling Stock
How is car rolling stock classified?
Automobile rolling stock is classified (divided) into freight, passenger and special.
What is related to freight rolling stock?
Freight rolling stock includes trucks; tractor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers.
What applies to passenger rolling stock?
Passenger rolling stock includes buses, cars, passenger trailers and semi-trailers.
What applies to special rolling stock?
Special rolling stock includes cars, trailers and semi-trailers designed to perform various non-transport work.
How are trucks classified?
Trucks are classified into general purpose vehicles having a body with sides (a cargo platform) and designed to transport most goods, and specialized cars with a special design body designed to carry one type of cargo or group of cargoes (panel trucks, timber trucks, cement trucks, milk tankers, etc. .).
What cars are called tractor vehicles?
Tractor cars are called cars designed for continuous work with trailers or semi-trailers. They are divided into saddle and towing.
What tractor cars belong to truck?
Truck tractors include vehicles that constantly work with semi-trailers. On the frame of such a car is mounted a fifth wheel (saddle), which is supported by its front part of the semitrailer.
What are the towing vehicles?
Towing towing vehicles include vehicles that are equipped with a special coupling device (towing hook, device for connecting the brake system and trailer electrical equipment) for connecting the trailer. In this case, the load can be both in the car body and in the trailer body.
What is called a road train?
A towing vehicle towing a trailer (s) or a semi-trailer is called a road train.
How are passenger cars classified?
Passenger cars are classified into cars and buses, depending on destination, design and capacity.
How are cars classified?
Cars are classified: by the size of the engine displacement - into especially small ones with a displacement of up to 1.2 l; small - 1.2-1.8; medium - 1.8-3.5; large - more than 3.5 liters. By type of body - for cars with a body such as a sedan, coupe, wagon, limousine, etc. By appointment - for personal, taxi, rental. By the number of seats in the body - on one-, two-, three-, four-, five-, six- and seven-seater cars.
How are buses classified?
Buses are classified: by body capacity (number of seats) - at a particularly small capacity (up to 10 seats), small (up to 25), medium (40-50), large (60-80) and extra large capacity (100-120 places); in length - for especially small (up to 5 m), small (6.0-7.5), medium (8.0-9.5), large (10.5-12), especially large - articulated (16, 5 m or more); by appointment - to city (intracity and suburban), local traffic, intercity, tourist and sightseeing.
What is a trailer?
Trailer - a single, double or multi-axle non-motorized carriage towed by a towing vehicle using a towing device and designed to carry goods and passengers. Trailers are divided into transport and special. Transport trailers are designed to transport goods and passengers; special - for the transportation of certain goods (refrigerators, tanks, etc.) or for performing non-transport work using machines, apparatus or equipment installed there (workshops, summer cottages, etc.).
Which vehicles use single-axle trailers?
Single-axle trailers are used to work with trucks and cars and are connected to them using a drawbar on a trailer and a towing device on a car. In addition, the trailer with the car is connected by a cable or chain, which is a control link in case the trailer is separated from the car.
In what cases do you use dissolution trailers?
Dissolution trailers are used to transport long loads. The trailer-dissolution has a frame with a sliding drawbar, on which a skate with racks is mounted. When transporting very long loads (more than 20 m), steering-controlled guided trailers are used, which are controlled by the driver on the trailer, improving the maneuverability of the road train.
In what cases use two- and three-axle trailers?
Two- and three-axle trailers have different load capacities and are designed to work with medium and heavy-duty tractor vehicles. Such trailers have a body, a towing device with a turntable and a towed drawbar, usually they are equipped with brakes, lighting and an alarm.
What is a semi-trailer and how does it differ from a trailer?
The semitrailer (truck trailer) differs from the trailer in that a part of its own mass and the mass of the load is transferred to the tractor frame. Semitrailers can be single and biaxial. The axles of the semi-trailers are located under the rear of the body, and the coupling device for connecting to the tractor and the supporting racks with rollers or flat supports are located under the front of the body to keep the semi-trailer in a horizontal position when it is in an uncoupled state. Luge trailers are used on snowy and icy roads.
When are heavy trailers used?
Heavy-duty trailers are used for transportation of oversized cargo weighing 100 tons or more. To reduce pressure on the road, they have a large number of wheels.
What are the characteristics of active trailers and semi-trailers?
Active trailers and semi-trailers have drive wheels driven by the engine of a towing vehicle. Such trailers (semi-trailers) provide an increase in the cross-country ability of the road train and can have a very large load-carrying capacity, since the coupling mass of the road-train is equal to the sum of the masses on the drive wheels. The most widespread are the electric and hydraulic drives of the driving wheels of active trailers and semi-trailers. With an electric drive, a diesel generator is installed on the tractor, and the wheels of both the tractor and the trailer (semi-trailer) are driven by electric motors. With a hydraulic drive, hydraulic motors are installed on the drive wheels, and a hydraulic generator (pump) is installed on the tractor.
How are trucks classified by capacity?
Trucks are classified according to carrying capacity into five groups: 1 - especially light-duty carrying capacity up to 0.5 t; 2 - light load capacity from 0.5 to 2.0 tons; 3 - average load capacity from 2 to 5 tons; 4 - heavy-duty from 5 to 15 tons; 5 - a particularly large carrying capacity of 15 tons or more.
How is the capacity of a road train determined?
The loading capacity of a road train is the sum of the carrying capacity of the towing vehicle and the carrying capacity of the trailer. According to this total load capacity, it belongs to a particular group of cars.
How are cars classified according to cross-country ability?
By patency, automobiles are classified into road ones intended for driving on roads with or without coating; off-road and high-cross-country vehicles that can move in difficult road conditions and off-road; off-road (quarry), designed to work in specific conditions. Off-road and high-cross-country vehicles, depending on the propulsion structure, are divided into wheeled, wheeled-tracked, half-tracked, amphibious and hovercraft.