Reciprocating internal combustion engines are classified according to such criteria. By the way the workflow is carried out - on engines with external mixture formation (carburetor and gas) and internal mixture formation (diesel).
By the method of ignition of a combustible mixture - on engines with forced ignition (carburetor and gas) and self-ignition (diesel). In carburetor and gas engines, a combustible mixture is ignited by an electric spark generated by an ignition system. In diesel engines, the combustible mixture spontaneously ignites due to the high temperature that occurs when air is compressed in the engine cylinder.
By the number of clock cycles, the engines are divided into two- and four-stroke. By the type of fuel used - for engines of light or light fuel (gasoline, alcohols), heavy fuel (diesel fuel, diesel oil, oil) and gaseous fuel engines (methane, hydrogen, propane-butane mixtures).
By the number of cylinders - for single-cylinder and multi-cylinder. By the arrangement of the cylinders - on vertical (single row), V-shaped (double row) and horizontal (opposed). In the boxer engine, the angle between the cylinders is 180 °. By type of cooling - for engines with liquid and air cooling. In terms of displacement (displacement), engines are divided into small displacement engines with a displacement of up to 1.2 l, small displacement (from 1.2 to 1.8 l), medium displacement (from 1.8 to 3.5 l) and large displacement (over 3.5 l).
Depending on what factors is the engine selected?The acceptance of a particular engine for installation on a vehicle depends on the type of vehicle on which it is to be installed, its purpose, load capacity, and speed.
Types of piston internal combustion enginesAutomakers are developing more and more new engines every year. They differ in size, volume and power.
The range of engines installed on a particular car, replete with an assortment. For one model, the manufacturer can offer up to 15 engine options. The type of fuel, horsepower, the number of cylinders, the presence of a turbine, the type of injection, the number of valves - distinguish motors from each other. But one of the most important criteria for distinguishing engines is their type. It is he who is most often marked with an additional nameplate on the trunk lid. Internal combustion engines (ICE) can be divided into in-line, V-shaped, VR-shaped, box-shaped and W-shaped. They also include a rotary motor. Auto Informant figured out what are the characteristic differences between these internal combustion engines.
Briefly about the principle of operation of the most common four-stroke piston internal combustion engine. In such an engine, the cycle is divided into 4 cycles (4 piston strokes):
- The piston goes down from the top dead center, freeing the combustion chamber (cylinder) and sucking the mixture from the open intake valve.
- The piston moves to top dead center, squeezing the mixture. When the piston approaches it, a spark is supplied to the combustion chamber.
- Free piston stroke. After supplying the spark, the mixture detonates and squeezes the piston out of the combustion chamber.
- When the piston makes its fourth stroke, the exhaust valve opens, through which the piston squeezes the exhaust gases from the combustion chamber.