Asbestos is a crystalline silicate mineral in fibrous structure, which has suffered as much harm to humanity throughout the ages. Asbestos minerals have become a preferred product in construction, ship, vehicle, textile and other industrial areas due to their heat and electricity resistance, resistance to heat, and easy processing of long fibers. a major health problem in Turkey due to inhalation of asbestos lung disease known as occupational diseases that have emerged in western countries at the end of nearly a quarter century of research finds. Our country has banned the production and use of all kinds of asbestos after 2005.

The name of the mineral comes from the ancient Greek word “Asbestino maz which means fireproof. European countries use the Latin word i amiantos ındaki, meaning “lekesis yerine, instead of asbestos. The Romans burned the dead people in a cloth made of fiber, which they call amiantos, to collect their ashes after they were burned. In this way, the ash of the deceased was easily collected and the cover used remained unburned. They used anthophyllite asbestos mixture of clays in their countries 4,000 years ago to make pots such as clays and pots. Chinese 3,000 years ago, made of long-fiber white asbestos clothes and wicks of the oil lamps in the temples of the same material was recorded in the history books.

Although asbestos has been used extensively for centuries, the health problems it poses have begun to be understood at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reason for this is that it takes more than 40 years of incubation time for the disease to occur after inhalation, and that in ancient times people lived much shorter than now.

Asbestos minerals

Asbestos is a mineral group in the composition of magnesium silicate, calcium-magnesium silicate, iron-magnesium silicate or complex sodium-iron silicate with a fibrous crystal structure. Asbestos is divided into two groups according to its mineralogical properties:

Serpentine group asbestos minerals: Chrysotile, Lizardite and Antigorite minerals. Serpentine group minerals are in phyllosicates group.

Amphibole group asbestos minerals: Crocidolite (Blue asbestos), Ribecite Amosit, Tremolite (White amphibole),

Actinolite minerals are found. Amphibole minerals are found in the group of Inosilicates.

Asbestos minerals in nature

Asbestos minerals are found in various grades of basic and ultrabasic rocks. In chrysotile asbestos deposits connected to dunites and serpentines, the operating grade decreases up to 3%. This ratio is higher in amphibole asbestos deposits and asbestos fibers constitute 25% of the rocks in many beds. The fibers appear in veins, sometimes in layers, in the rock, often in a stoic state.

Uses of asbestos and its effects on human health

Asbestos fibers are present in cross, longitudinal and cluster form. Only 3 asbestos fibers are used. These; chrysotile (98%), amosit and crocidolite. Used in more than 3000 industrial areas. Among these are textiles, filters, shipbuilding, aircraft construction, cement production, automobile construction insulation products, water pipe construction, petrochemical industry, gas masks construction, floor tiles and cladding boards. Asbestos has been used in some cigarette filters because of its non-flammability and has been advertised to indicate the degree of flammability. Asbestos is used in non-shrinking asbestos pipe coating, asbestos wick packaging, asbestos paper tapes, brake and clutch linings and asbestos cement pipes.

Asbestos materials; Some roofing materials, metal parts or tiles covering the exterior of the building. In addition, it is used in the materials used for insulation in houses built in the 1940-1970s, in some floor tiles and flooring adhesives, in the insulation of hot water and steam pipes, in woven paint and in patch materials of some wall-base corners, in insulation materials of pipes and channels. Asbestos is also used in building insulation, under carpet coating, artificial fireplace and furnace materials, toasters and some other machines used in households, heating boilers and gaskets, electrical cables, brake pads and linings, cookware handles, ironing board cloth, oven gloves, hair dryers and cement. In addition, it is used in the materials used for insulation in houses built in the 1940-1970s, in some floor tiles and flooring adhesives, in the insulation of hot water and steam pipes, in woven paint and in patch materials of some wall-base corners, in insulation materials of pipes and channels.

Asbestos is also used in building insulation, under carpet coating, artificial fireplace and furnace materials, toasters and some other machines used in households, heating boilers and gaskets, electrical cables, brake pads and linings, cookware handles, ironing board cloth, oven gloves, hair dryers and cement. In addition, it is used in the materials used for insulation in houses built in the 1940-1970s, in some floor tiles and flooring adhesives, in the insulation of hot water and steam pipes, in woven paint and in patch materials of some wall-base corners, in insulation materials of pipes and channels.

Asbestos is also used in building insulation, under carpet coating, artificial fireplace and furnace materials, toasters and some other machines used in households, heating boilers and gaskets, electrical cables, brake pads and linings, cookware handles, ironing board cloth, oven gloves, hair dryers and cement. It is used in patchwork of woven dye and some wall-base corners, and insulation materials of pipes and ducts. Asbestos is also used in building insulation, under carpet coating, artificial fireplace and furnace materials, toasters and some other machines used in households, heating boilers and gaskets, electrical cables, brake pads and linings, cookware handles, ironing board cloth, oven gloves, hair dryers and cement. It is used in patchwork of woven dye and some wall-base corners, and insulation materials of pipes and ducts.

Asbestos is also used in building insulation, under carpet coating, artificial fireplace and furnace materials, toasters and some other machines used in households, heating boilers and gaskets, electrical cables, brake pads and linings, cookware handles, ironing board cloth, oven gloves, hair dryers and cement.

Contrary to today's use, the old products are mostly used as crocidolite and amosit as low density insulation material. However, these asbestos are very dangerous in terms of their health due to their being very dusty, their chemical structure, and their flat and needley forms and are no longer used. These fibers cause very difficult diseases to repair and even cancer in lung tissues. Chrysotyl asbestos are less dangerous than amphibole derivatives.

With its silky texture and curled fibers, serpentine asbestos remains less suspended in the air. In recent years, reactions against the negative effects of asbestos on human health have directed research institutions to other raw materials that can be used instead of asbestos, resulting in stagnation in production and trade. Materials that can be used instead of asbestos; foamy plastic, fibrous glass, polystyrene, vermucilite, wood fiber, perlite, alumina, gypsum.

The free asbestos fibers, which are seen only under the electron microscope, are extremely small and thin, and many of them pass through the air ducts in the lungs called alveoli. When these fibers enter the lungs, the defense mechanism of the body comes into play and tries to remove the fibers from the body. Each fiber, as a separate mass, such as a splinter in the finger, can move once they enter the body. The reason for this is not fully understood, but because they are very small and sharp and can easily pass through the tissue. As our body tries to dispose or break them down, inflammation begins to occur in these sharp fibers. Despite all interventions, many fibers remain in the lungs as potential disease-causing agents. These inflammations are the beginning of many different asbestos diseases over time. Our defense system encapsulates asbestos fibers entering our lungs with a layer of protein to form foreign masses. These masses are called asbestos masses.

The first group of diseases caused by asbestos; pleradaphibrosis, calcification, effusion, fibrosis in the lung parenchyma (asbestosis); The second group includes malignant mesotheliomas of the pleura and peritoneum, lung cancers and digestive cancers. The most dangerous of these, otel Mesothelioma ”or“ Lung Cancer olabilir can cause death, while others often cause symptoms or insufficiencies in the body. Asbestosis caused by asbestosis (mesothelioma), although not fully understood, asbestos fibers that enter the lung is caused by irritation and inflammation. Wounds and thickening of the lungs prevent the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood cells and alveoli. As a result, the lungs cannot function as well as before.