Identifying Car Electrical System Components

The engine is indeed the most important part of the car. But without an electrical system, the car will not be able to turn on and function optimally. The car's electrical system also has another important function for the comfort of the driver and passengers. Get to know your vehicle's electrical system in this article.

Understanding the car electrical system is a series of electrical energy that is arranged to carry out a certain function in a car. This means that all systems in the car that utilize electrical energy are included in the car's electrical system.

Here are some of the functions of the car's electrical system as reported by

  • The electrical system can add to your driving comfort
  • Help spark plugs ignite, so the gasoline engine can work
  • For machine safety and security systems

Here Are the Various Electrical Systems in the Car

The scope of electricity in a car is very broad, therefore the electrical system in a car can be divided into several smaller systems, namely the car engine electrical system, body electrical system,

Machine Electrical System

The car engine electrical system is an electrical circuit that is on the engine to help the engine performance make it easier and more efficient to work.

An example of an engine electrical system is a spark plug, which can fire when there is a current or electrical energy. Spark plug components can convert electricity into fire. After this change occurs, the car engine can start and run. There are several engine electrical systems other than spark plugs, namely:

  1. Alert system

This system is also known as an indicator system, which is an electrical circuit whose function is to warn of an error. This indicator is in the form of a light around the speedometer or MiD (Multi Information Display) screen.

MiD generally provides information about the car's speed, temperature, fuel indicator, oil indicator, airbags, check engine, and so on. MiD is very important for the driver because it provides important information regarding the condition of the vehicle.

  1. Ignition system

Then there is also an ignition system with a function to issue sparks in the system. In this case, the ignition system utilizes electromagnetic energy to increase the voltage on the battery.

  1. Starter system

The starter system includes parts of the engine's electrical system. This system functions in the process of the initial rotation of the engine, which causes the engine shaft to rotate, then the first combustion of the engine occurs.

  1. Charging system

The charging system is the electrical circuit of the machine that supplies electric current. Its function is to convert some of the engine rotation, through the dynamo into electrical energy, so that electricity always flows.

Injection Car Electrical System

For cars that already use injection technology, there is an additional electrical system in the engine, namely the electronic fuel injection car system or EFI (electronic fuel injection). The EFI system is an integrated engine electrical system to regulate the gasoline supply to the engine, so that it remains ideal for all conditions.

Diesel Car Electrical System

In addition to the general engine electrical system, there are two additional diesel car electrical systems.

  1. Glow plug system

The glow plug system is one part of the diesel car electrical system. This system serves as a heater which has the function of increasing the temperature of the diesel engine when it is still cold. The goal is to expedite the process of starting a diesel car.

  1. Common rail system

This common rail system is in charge of regulating the amount of diesel fuel supplied to the combustion chamber. This system is similar to the EFI (electronic fuel injection) system. But the difference is, the common rail system is included in one of the diesel car electrical systems.

Body Electrical System

Your favorite car also has a car body electrical system, in addition to the engine electrical system. The car body electrical system is an electrical circuit contained in the car body.

Although different, the electrical system used in the engine and car body is the same. Several types of car body electricity include:

Exterior Lighting System

The exterior lighting system is the electrical system on the outside of the car, including headlights, city lights, and fog lights. This system serves to illuminate the exterior of the car.

Interior Lighting System

While the interior lighting system is an electrical system that functions to illuminate the interior of the car, such as cabin lights that can be turned on either manually or automatically.

Alert System

A warning system is a car's electrical system that serves to signal other drivers on the road. Examples include dimmer, turn signal, stop light, and reverse light.

Infotainment System

The infotainment system is an electrical circuit in the car that serves as an entertainment feature for the driver and passengers. Here are some examples of this infotainment system.

Audio and Video System

Audio and video are mandatory features in today's cars. Its function is to provide entertainment while driving, especially when stuck in traffic. Drivers and passengers can listen to music, to play videos during the trip.

Usb Port and Cigarette Lighter

There is also a USB port and cigarette lighter feature that functions to charge gadgets. In this case the driver and passenger can charge their gadgets.

Chassis System

The chassis electrical system is the electrical system found on the chassis of the car. The function of this electrical circuit is to facilitate the transfer of power from the engine to the wheels. Some examples of chassis electrical systems are:

Abs and Ebd System

The ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) system is a system that functions to prevent slippage when the driver steps on the brake pedal.

Then EBD (Electronic Brake-force Distribution) is in charge of distributing braking power in a balanced way. Both systems help the car's security function.

Hill Start Assist, Traction Control, Stability Control

The function of the Hill start assist (HSA) system, traction control, and stability control, is to maintain the stability and traction of the car when driving on heavy or slippery terrain such as wet roads, steep roads, uphill, or in mountainous areas.

However, usually the HSA feature is only found on SUV cars.

Differential Clutch

Differential clutch is part of the chassis electricity, which serves to connect or disconnect the differential on the vehicle.

Transmission Solenoid

Transmission solenoid is an electrical system whose function is to shift gears using a solenoid.

Car Security System

Currently the car uses an electrical-based security system, no longer using a mechanical system.

The electrical system used for the car security system is much safer and more complex than the previous mechanical car security system. The following is an example of an electrical system in a car security system and safety system.

  1. Bag inflator control

Bag inflator control is an electrical system whose function is to regulate when the airbag inflates. The airbag itself is in charge of preventing injury when the driver has an accident.

In the event of a collision, the air bag or airbag will inflate so that the head of the driver or passenger is protected from the impact. Bag inflator control is what controls when the airbag inflates at the right time.

  1. Immobilizer

Immobilizer is an anti-theft system. In this system, the ignition will emit waves. If the key is used correctly, then the car can be started. But if the keys don't match, then the car can't start.

  1. Alarm system

Next there is also an alarm system that gives audible warnings, when someone is about to steal, or damage the car. If there is a physical disturbance in the car, the alarm system will automatically activate.

Car Electrical Components

Cars become more efficient and comfortable when using the electrical system. But the circuit of the car's electrical system is not simple. There are many electrical components in a car with complex workings.

All electrical components of a car cannot work alone, because they are interrelated and interconnected. If one of them is experiencing interference, it can affect the performance of other components.

If this happens, take your favorite car to a repair shop, to solve problems with the car's electrical components. So that interference does not damage other parts of the car, endangering driving safety.

If you do not have the knowledge, you should not tamper with the car's electrical system, because there will be a great risk of failure. Here are some types of electrical components in the car.

Current Supply

Current supply is a source of electric current for other components. The current supply has two main parts, namely the battery ( car battery ) and the alternator. The battery will supply current up to 12 volts. While the alternator can supply current up to 14 volts.

These two parts will supply current for other car components such as air conditioning, audio, and various other types of lights.

The number of batteries and the capacity of the alternator will be adjusted to the needs, and the electrical function of the car. The greater the electricity required, the more the number of batteries.

Output Components

The next component of the car's electrical system is the output, which is the result of the electrical system such as LED lights, audio, head units, air conditioners, horns, and so on. The output is also an integral part of the input component.

Component Input

The output system must be equipped with an input system. The two are an inseparable unit. Even input components can affect other components of the car's electrical system.

The activeness of the entire electrical system is determined by the input components. This input component can be activated manually by the driver, or automatically.

Input components can be activated manually with buttons, knobs, switches, and switches. While the automatic input components are sensors and indicators.

When the input component is active, the electrical system is on. Vice versa. So this input component is in charge of connecting and cutting off electricity to the device.

Wiring Harness

Wiring harness, also known as a series of cables, functions to transmit current from a power source to electronic devices.

This series of cables are interrelated, if there is damage to one of the cables then the entire circuit must be replaced. Some examples of wiring harnesses in car electricity include audio circuits, engines, and car air conditioners.

Control System

The control system is a mandatory component in a car with a computerized system, because the electrical circuit is turned on and off by a computer processor. This condition makes the input component no longer needed.

Examples are the ABS braking system, auto leveling headlamp, transmission control module, and others. The control system on the car's electricity works automatically and does not require control from the driver.

Car AC Electrical System

The car air conditioning system is a system for changing air from inside the car cabin to outside the car, coupled with a cabin temperature regulation function. In general, the way a car AC system works is the same as a room air conditioner.

However, car air conditioners also have an electrical circuit as well, in addition to freon and air circulation. The car's AC electrical system is in charge of activating the AC system, and controlling the temperature of the car cabin according to the wishes of the driver and passengers.

The following are things included in the car's AC electrical system.

Car AC Freon Pressure Sensor

AC refrigerant pressure sensor is a component that includes an input device. The function of this sensor is to detect the freon pressure in the high pressure hose.

When you step on the gas pedal, the engine speed will increase. The condition of increasing engine speed also increases pump rotation which results in an increase in freon pressure. This is because the AC compressor is also connected to the engine pulley.

If the freon pressure continues to increase, the AC hose will burst because the hose also has a pressure limit. The presence of a car AC freon pressure sensor, makes the magnetic clutch can be disconnected when the freon pressure reaches the maximum point.

Car Air Conditioner Temperature Sensor

The sensor in this blower is in charge of detecting the temperature of the air pumped by the AC blower into the car cabin. Through this sensor, the AC module can know that the car's AC cycle is taking place normally.

Ambient Air Temperature Sensor

The ambient air temperature sensor has the function of detecting the cabin air temperature, or the temperature outside the car. The task of this sensor is related to the accuracy of air cooling in the car cabin.

This is due to the difference in temperature outside and inside the car cabin, which also affects the cooling rate of the air.

If you turn on the car air conditioner during the day, maybe you need to set the air conditioner to the coldest temperature before it feels cool.

But at night, even with a minimum cold temperature setting, the car air conditioner feels cold. This is because the temperature outside the cabin during the day is hotter, so the cooling rate is slower during the day than at night.

The presence of an ambient air temperature sensor makes the AC module work more accurately when controlling the fan and magnetic clutch performance. The goal is that the temperature in the car cabin remains in accordance with the wishes of the driver or passenger.

Magnetic Clutch Compressor

The function of this type of coupling is to connect, and disconnect, the rotation from the pulley to the compressor shaft. This magnetic clutch component works electrically, by utilizing the magnetic attraction.

A coil will be placed at the back of the compressor pulley. If there is an electric current flowing into the coil, there will be an induction which will attract the metal components nearby.

So that when the iron rotor slide is attracted to the coil, the rotor will press on the pulley. As a result, the rotation of the pulley can be forwarded to the rotor and to the compressor shaft.

Extra Fan

The extra fan is the same as a cooling fan, but the control system is not the same as an engine cooling fan. The function of this fan is to blow air from the front of the car into the grille and through the condenser. The goal is that the freon temperature in the condenser can be cooler.

This extra fan is also combined with the cooling fan. Therefore, when the AC is turned on, the radiator will also be cooled even though the engine temperature is still cold.

This condition often causes more fuel consumption when using AC. This is because engines running below their optimal operating temperature require more fuel to generate more heat.

Blower Motor

Like the extra fan, the blower motor also functions to circulate air. However, the air supplied by the blower motor is directed to the car cabin. This makes the blower also functions as a ventilator.

When the blower is turned on, there is air circulation through the evaporator. In the evaporator, freon is a gas that is cold enough that after passing through the evaporator, the air temperature becomes even colder.

Amplifier/ Hvac Control Module

This AC amplifier is a regulator of the performance of the compressor clutch and extra fan, based on the temperature that has been set by the driver or passenger.

In most European-made cars, which already use many types of Auto AC air conditioners, this amplifier component has been replaced by the HVAC control module which is connected to other modules.

AC Switch and Blower Control

With this component the driver and passenger set three inputs, namely:

  • AC switches. Its function is to activate the compressor clutch, and air conditioning circulation begins
  • Temperature control, which is a selector to set the desired cabin temperature for the driver and passengers. Information from this switch is sent to the amplifier/HVAC module and then processed further
  • Blower speed, usually 4 levels of blower acceleration are available

Power Supply

In the AC electrical circuit, the power supply uses a 12 volt battery located in the engine room. This power supply will generally be used for magnetic clutch, extra fan, and blower motor.

Circuit Protection (Fuse and Relay)

Every electrical system must have a safety circuit, including the AC electrical system. For example in the blower, if there is no safety circuit, then the risk of damage to the blower is quite high.

Safety circuits that are generally used are fuses and relays. Fuse is used to prevent overcurrent conditions, while the relay bridges the battery current to directly enter the load.

Car Light Electrical System

We really need the presence of car lights, especially when driving at night. All motorized vehicles, both cars and motorbikes, must be equipped with main lights as lighting by each manufacturer.

The electrical system for car lights, especially for the main lights or headlamps, consists of several components, namely batteries, fuses or fuses, switches to control lights, dimmer switches, relays, head lights, remote indicator lights and cables. Here's a brief explanation

Battery or Car Battery

The battery or car battery, in the head lamp lighting system serves as a source of electricity. Generally car batteries have a voltage of 12 volts.

Fuse or Fuse

Fuse serves as a safety when there is an excessive current load or an electrical short circuit occurs.

This component also functions to prevent damage to other electrical components such as switches, relays, cables, or lights. There are two types of fuses, namely tube type and blade type.

Headlamp Control Switch

The head lamp control switch functions as a lamp control switch, both close-range and dim lights.


The lamp relay is a component for connecting and disconnecting large electric currents to the main light, with a switch that only uses a small current. The use of relays can make the switch more durable, because the switch only carries a small current as a controller.

Headlamp or Main Lamp

There are two types of headlights that are widely used by motorized vehicles, namely, the sealed beam type and the semi sealed beam type (light bulb). The sealed beam type main lamp is a lamp in which the construction of the light bulb and the reflector glass are integrated into one unit.

While the main lamp is a semi sealed beam type, which is a lamp whose light bulb construction can be removed from the reflector glass. So if the light bulb breaks, you can just replace the bulb.


The cable serves as a conductor of electricity to and from electrical components. The size of the wire diameter varies, depending on the amount of current flowing in the cable.

Tips from Auto Insurance Agencies! The car's electrical system is an inseparable part. The system makes many car parts function properly, such as the engine, lights, to various other important features.

Most car owners only know the presence of electricity in the car in a simple way, namely a light that is on or a normal functioning starter.

Though the car's electrical system is more complicated than that. The electrical system of a car cannot be called simple, because it consists of many components and circuits.

Some of the functions of the car's electrical system are to increase your driving comfort, help spark plugs so that the gasoline engine can work, and for engine safety and security systems.

All electrical components of a car cannot work alone, because they are interrelated and interconnected. If one of them is experiencing interference, it can affect the performance of other components.

If this happens, take your favorite car to a repair shop, to solve problems with the car's electrical components. So that interference does not damage other parts of the car, endangering driving safety.

If you do not have the knowledge, you should not tamper with the car's electrical system, because there will be a great risk of failure. Don't forget to always protect your favorite car with the best car insurance. Choose the car insurance that suits your needs.

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