Find Out How This Manual Transmission Works. Come On!
Kendaraan menjadi kebutuhan yang cukup penting dalam kehidupan manusia saat ini. Hal ini karena kita sering melakukan perjalanan jarak jauh yang membutuhkan kendaraan untuk bisa sampai kesana. Seiring berjalannya waktu, kendaraan kini memiliki dua jenis transmisi, yaitu transmisi manual dan otomatis.
Banyak orang yang masih bingung akan penggunaan dari cara kerja transmisi manual sehingga terjadi banyak kesalahan dalam penggunaannya. Berikut adalah beberapa hal yang berhubungan dengan transmisi manual yang telah automotive tips rangkum supaya kamu bisa lebih paham cara kerja transmisi manual.
What Is Manual Transmission?
Manual transmission is a type of transmission that is widely used in motorized vehicles. This system is a type of clutch used by the driver to regulate the transfer from engine torque to the transmission, as well as hand-operated gear shifts.
This acceleration is set up in the gearbox for the many speeds available, usually 3 to 6 forward acceleration gears plus 1 reverse gear. This gear is adapted to low or uphill speeds which must use 1st gear and so on for increasingly higher speeds. This also applies the other way around.
Braking will be better when the acceleration gear is decreased. There are many components that help in forming the gear ratio comparison mechanism in a manual transmission. There is also a mechanism that connects the gear lever with the transmission. Here are the manual transmission components and their functions.
- The input shaft is the part that is directly related to the clutch and rotation of the clutch.
- Counter gear and shaft is a part that can produce a ratio ratio.
- Bearings can help reduce friction losses of moving objects.
- Gear acceleration can produce comparison ratios.
- Clutch hub can connect the rotation of the shaft to the gear acceleration
- The hub sleeve can connect the rotation of the shaft to the acceleration gear
- Synchronizer ring can equalize the rotation of the shaft with the gear acceleration.
There are other transmissions, such as automatic transmission, semi-automatic transmission, and continuously variable transmission (CVT).
Acceleration Gear Arrangement
The arrangement of the acceleration gears from the manual transmission will be adjusted to the characteristics used in certain regions, cars from Asia will be quite different from cars from Europe, especially in the reverse gear.
The placement of the lever is usually on the floor, but there are also those who put it on the dashboard or on the handlebar for older cars. The floor shift lever consists of 5 speed gears commonly used in modern cars with one reverse gear with the name R. The placement of the R is very important because if it is entered incorrectly, the user's journey can be disrupted.
Shifting from 5th gear to reverse can have very fatal consequences. Then there is also the arrangement of 5 speed gears commonly used in light buses with one reverse gear called R. 1st gear is rarely used and when used it is usually used when climbing steep inclines. The transmission lever on the steering wheel usually uses a 3 forward gear arrangement that is often used in acceleration gear for cars in America in the 1930s to 1950s. The car earned the nickname three on three.
There is also a layout that is often used by European and Japanese cars. This arrangement was used after the arrangement in America was used. There are still cars that use this arrangement, such as the Mitsubishi L 300. For motorcycles, the gear lever on the motorbike uses an acceleration gear that is stepped on with the left foot to get into gear 1 and is pushed up so that it can go into gear 2, 3 and so on.. If you want to reduce the speed, then the lever must be stepped down, starting from 5, 4, 3, and so on.
Advantages of Manual Transmission
- Save fuel. A manual transmission connects the engine to a rigid clutch as opposed to a torque converter in an automatic transmission or the v-belt in a continuously variable transmission. Manual transmission does not waste a lot of energy because it does not use the hydraulic pump in the A/T transmission. This makes cars that use manual transmissions more fuel efficient than A/T or CVT cars. However, now the difference in fuel is not too prominent because there is a locking torque converter in the A/T transmission. The difference between the two is only about 5-15%. Manual transmissions also don't use active cooling as they are mechanically simpler than A/T. This makes it lighter in weight than the A/T transmission.
- Endurance. Manual transmission has a simpler mechanical system because it has fewer parts when compared to A/T. This transmission also does not have electrical components, pumps, and cooling mechanisms like those in the A/T transmission.
- Manual vehicle maintenance costs tend to be cheaper than automatic ones. The new price for manual vehicles is also cheaper than automatic.
- Lubrication. Many M/T transmissions have to use splash lubrication, although some rover gearboxes also have an oil pump.
- Performance and control. Manual transmissions usually have more gear ratios. Usually there are 5 to 6 gear speeds, where A/T only uses 4 gears. The fuel consumption of a vehicle will be more efficient if the number of teeth is increasing.
- Engine braking. Manual transmission has an engine brake that is more effective when compared to the A/T transmission engine braking. that is, the engine does not slow down the car effectively when the driver takes control of the gas. Drivers have to use the brakes more often which makes the brakes on A/T cars wear out faster.
How Manual Transmission Works
The difference between automatic and manual transmission lies in the way the gear shifts. Cars that use a manual transmission will change gears through gears. In manual transmissions, gear acceleration is created in the gearbox for various sizes of acceleration which usually ranges from 3 to 6 gears plus 1 reverse gear.
Cars that use manual transmissions must apply the moment principle, which means that the gear ratio will bring up the right moment for the engine load when the car is in use. There is a simple principle called gear ratio in manual transmissions.
The resulting speed output will be different when the gear ratio is changed in the transmission system. For example, if you are going up an incline, you will need more torque because the load is also greater. If the required torque is smaller, then the speed will be faster. There are three ways of shifting gears, namely sliding mesh, constant mesh, and synchromesh.
Gear Function 1 2, 3 4 5 in Manual Transmission
After knowing about manual transmissions, now you need to know more about how manual transmissions work and the functions of gears 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 on manual transmissions so that you have a deeper understanding of manual transmissions.
1. Gear Function 1
Gear 1 is the first gear that must be used when you want to drive a manual car. This gear is the starting gear when the car engine starts and runs at the beginning of the trip. This gear can only be used for a maximum speed of 20 km / h.
2. Gear Function 2
After 1st gear is used, then you have to shift the car's gear to 2nd gear so that the car can continue to run and not crash. Gear 2 is used to make a manual car engine can run at a speed of 15-35 km / h. For those of you who ask when on an incline you should use which gear, then you can use a manual car gear 1 or 2 for the most effective way. You can use 1st gear for very steep inclines, while 2nd gear can be used for slopes that are practically sloping.
3. Gear Function 3
Gear 3 on a manual car has the function of being a standard gear. This gear is a gear that can make the car run quite smoothly and can provide a strong enough thrust even if the road is uneven, or other roads such as uphill, downhill, or bumpy roads. Remember! If the main function of each car gear is to be able to adjust the speed of the vehicle you are using.
4. 4. Gear Function
Gear 4 is a gear that can be used when you pass through a wide road and want to accelerate the car to a speed of 50-80 km / h. This 4th gear is perfect for use when driving on highways or other wide smooth roads. Estimated the right time to change or shift a manual car gear to the 4th gear position has its own way. To shift the manual car to gear 4, you have to adjust the speed first by entering 50 km / h to 80 km / h.
5. Gear Function 5
Gear 5 is the last gear you can use on a manual car. This gear is the gear that has the maximum speed that you can use when driving a manual car. With this 5th gear, you can drive your car up to a speed of more than 80 km/hour.
Manual Transition User Error
Many beginners make small mistakes so that their way of driving and their driving activities are not smooth. This error can also have an impact on the age of their car components. But you can learn from the mistakes that often occur in manual car users, both old and new. Here is how manual transmission works and manual transmission user errors for you to know more deeply.
1. Stepping on the Clutch Halfway
There are several things that must be considered for those of you who drive four-wheeled vehicles, especially those of you who use a manual car clutch. This clutch is in charge of continuing and disconnecting the power that comes from the engine to the transmission.
The way it works is that when you step on the clutch fully, the power line will be cut off, and when you step on the gas pedal the car can't move. Manual car clutch can also increase or decrease engine speed when you want to shift the transmission gear.
But when using it, there are some car drivers who step on it halfway. In fact, this will harm the engine if it is done continuously. Here are some reasons why you shouldn't step on the clutch halfway.
- Half-stepped on the clutch pedal will cause the dog clutch to be damaged more quickly. The power from the car will be less pronounced. The car will not be able to go fast and not strong in passing through the incline road.
- Kopling juga akan menjadi cepat aus dan tipis karena kopling terus mengalami pergesekan dengan fly wheel sehingga kopling cepat tipis. Hal ini membuat tenaga dari mesin ke transmisi tidak berjalan optimal. Bisa muncul bau gosong pada mobil. Jika ini terjadi, maka mobil akan sulit untuk berakselerasi.
- Kopling akan tidak awet meski pedal kopling terbilang cukup tinggi daya tahannya jika digunakan secara normal.Kopling bisa terbakar.
Hal di atas bukan berarti kamu tidak boleh sama sekali melakukannya. Kamu bisa melakukannya dalam kondisi tertentu, tapi jangan lama dan sering saja. Setengah kopling cocok untuk dilakukan saat macet di tanjakan dan kamu tidak mau mesin mati tiba-tiba. Jika sudah jalan lagi, kamu bisa melepas kaki dan mengatur kecepatan mobil dengan menginjak pedal gas.
Namun kamu bisa melepas pedal kopling dan menggunakan rem tangan supaya mobil tidak bergerak bebas. Saat kamu ngerem atau mobil pertama kali jalan, kamu juga bisa menginjak kopling setengah supaya mesin mobil tidak mati. Jika kopling mengalami masalah, ada beberapa tanda yang bisa kamu perhatikan.
Contohnya seperti akselerasi mobil yang turun, posisi injakan kopling jadi tinggi, ada getaran saat kopling diangkat, dan pedal kopling lebih keras saat diinjak. Jika ini terjadi, maka kamu harus mengganti kanvas kopling segera. Bila tidak, maka mesin akan kurang bertenaga dan komponen lain di dalam kopling bisa ikut rusak juga. Jika masalahnya sudah serius, hal ini bisa membuat mobil tidak bisa berjalan.
2. Kesalahan Pengguna Mobil Manual Menggantungkan Kaki Di Pedal Kopling
Karena tantangan dalam mengendarai mobil manual lebih berat dibandingkan dengan mobil matic, maka banyak orang yang suka mengistirahatkan bagian tubuh mereka di tempat yang tidak seharusnya. Salah satu kebiasaan yang banyak dilakukan adalah meletakkan kaki kiri di atas pedal kopling. Hal ini sering dilakukan saat ingin mengganti gigi atau menyiapkan kaki.
Namun, kebiasaan ini bisa berdampak buruk terhadap keselamatan kamu. Mobil bisa hilang kendali karenanya. Pengemudi yang mengistirahatkan kakinya di pedal kopling akan menginjak kopling duluan daripada rem saat mau ngerem. Apalagi saat mereka kaget atau ingin berhenti.
Saat kopling diinjak, laju kecepatan akan langsung meningkat sehingga beban saat ngerem akan lebih besar. Lebih baik injak rem lebih dulu. Baru kamu bisa menginjak pedal mobil. Daya tahan kopling juga bisa terpengaruh, karena kampas akan lebih cepat aus.
Menurut Pendiri Rifar Drive Labs, kebiasaan semacam itu adalah kesalahan yang fatal. Karena kampas kopling akan lebih cepat aus. Tenaga mobil juga akan hilang karena saat kopling aus, tenaga mobil tidak akan sempurna meski gas sudah diinjak dalam-dalam.
Perpindahan gigi menjadi selip juga bisa terjadi. Cara melepas kopling juga bisa membuat kanvas kopling tergerus apalagi saat memindahkan gigi. Persoalan ini memang terlihat sepele, tapi bisa memiliki efek yang besar. Kamu harus hati-hati saat melepas kopling saat memindahkan gigi.
Karena jika dilepas saja, maka akan terjadi hentakan yang membuat gesekan kanvas kopling menjadi keras. Ini akan membuat kanvas kopling jadi cepat menipis. Sebagai solusi, kamu bisa meletakkan kaki di footrest. Pastikan juga untuk selalu memahami kondisi mobil secara penuh supaya tahu kondisi mobil saat perjalanan.
3. Kebiasaan Menyandarkan Tangan Di Tuas Persneling
Kebiasaan mengistirahatkan bagian tubuh juga sering dilakukan pada bagian mobil berbeda. Hal ini adalah menyandarkan tangan di tuas persneling. Kebiasaan ini banyak yang sering menganggap remeh, tapi bisa menyebabkan kerusakan pada transmisi.
The head of the Cilandak Auto2000 Workshop said that putting your hand on the gear lever has nothing to do with transmission damage. If you just stick to it, it's actually not a problem, but many people give energy like they want to change gears without stepping on the clutch pedal. This can cause problems in transmission. Changing gears without stepping on the clutch is a very dangerous activity.
The teeth will break and the vehicle can stop when the fracture blocks the teeth of the vehicle. This also makes the transmission gear wear out, but not to the point of breaking. Because changing gears without stepping on the clutch will feel heavy and sound, so many don't do it.
4. Shifting Gears Backward While the Car Is Still Moving Forward
The reverse gear is often used for parking. But many motorists do not know how to use it. The error was in shifting the reverse gear, the car was not waited for it to stop. Many move the transmission lever to the R position even though the car is still moving a little.
This clearly should not be done because it will damage the transmission system, both for manual cars and automatic cars. If the car does not stop, the gear will be difficult to enter or a loud noise will appear due to the incorrect gear shifting moment. Why should you stop first, because the transmission has a reverse gear that will work like a manual transmission car. If not ignored, then the age of the car's transmission will wear out or be damaged more quickly.
5. Using High Gear at Low Rpm
There is something about RPM when shifting gears so that the car's performance can be maintained. RPM is revolutions per minute which is used to calculate how fast the car engine rotates. This RPM is usually written on the tachometer so the driver can know how fast the car's engine rotates when in use.
The display is made to be easy to read. The right RPM needs to be adjusted to the technical specifications of the vehicle engine. Not only to make the engine unburdened, but also to save fuel. Because the specifications of each car are different, it is necessary to first know the maximum torque that your car can achieve. Even though it has been calculated, it is better for you to adjust the RPM to that referred to by the manufacturer. Shifting gears is better at low RPM, but you still have to look at the car's specifications first.
Although low RPM is good for changing gears, it can waste fuel. Excessive consumption will not be as high as when the gear is replaced at high RPM. But gearshift according to torque is very important. The engine relaxes and is suitable for changing gears. Do not use high gear when the car is running slowly.
To determine the maximum torque, you can find out from the car manual. Usually available in feet, feet pounds, or newton meters. This torque will be written to and associated with the RPM. You also have to know the cc of the car's engine by knowing more about the car's specifications. If you have a 1,300 cc engine with 120 NM of torque that can get 4,200 RPM, then you have to maintain this speed when changing gears.
Not only wasteful of fuel, the clutch canvas will also be badly affected. Clutch canvas is important because it connects the engine and wheels to withstand the total load on the vehicle. So when this component is damaged because the RPM is not paid attention to properly, the age of the car engine will not last long.
Those are some things related to how manual transmissions work that you need to know. Also pay attention to the existing restrictions so that your manual car transmission can last for a longer time. Hopefully by reading this automotive tips Blog article you can understand more about how manual transmissions work.