What is Kano's Model? Definition of Kano's Model, Kano's Model Meaning and Concept
The Kano model is an analytical tool that relates the characteristics of a product to the level of satisfaction of its customers or buyers.
The Kano model is a tool for product quality management. It was created in the 1980s by Japanese professor Nokiari Kano who, together with co-authors Seraku, Takahashi and Tsuji, explained the basis of his model in his article "Attractive Qualities and Compulsory Quality" published in 1984.
The Kano model seeks to identify and classify the different product attributes and then relate them to the degree of satisfaction they provide to the customer.
Objective of the Kano Model
Kano's model has as its ultimate objective that the seller or manufacturer can clearly identify which are the attributes valued by consumers and offer a product according to said evaluation. Thus, for example, the Kano model helps us identify the following three elements, key to our sales strategy:
- What are the shortcomings of a product, that is, attributes that should be present but are not or not to a sufficient degree
- Whether or not it is convenient to invest in adding a certain attribute or not, will the client be willing to pay for this additional attribute?
- Determine which attributes can lead us to outperform our competitors.
How the Kano model works
Kano's model classifies attributes into five broad categories, according to how they affect customer satisfaction:
- Basic or expected quality : These are the minimum attributes that a product or service must have. In other words, it is the minimum that the client expects to find and if these attributes are not found, there will be great dissatisfaction. Thus, for example, the fact that a hotel has clean sheets and towels are minimum requirements.
Basic attributes do not serve to increase consumer satisfaction. He probably won't appreciate it if he finds them since it's the least he expects.
- Desired or performance quality : Also called performance attributes. These are attributes that are requested by the customer and that can make a difference with competitors. Thus, for example, if the hotel is illuminated, close to a metro station, in a quiet area, etc., these are attributes that the client values, appreciates, and that at the same time will use them to make comparisons and decide with which offeror to choose. is left over.
Desired attributes significantly influence customer satisfaction. The more attributes you find, the more satisfied you will be.
- Motivating or exciting quality : These are attributes that surprise the customer since he values them, but did not expect to find them. That is, they are details with which the company is able to exceed customer expectations.
The motivating quality produces great satisfaction to the client although its absence will not generate dissatisfaction.
- Indifferent quality : these are attributes that have no influence on customer satisfaction. Thus, for example, a client does not realize if the bottle of water that was left in his room is of greater or lesser quality.
- Rejection quality : These are attributes, or rather characteristics, that the client perceives as negative and causes rejection. For example, an uncomfortable, broken or non-functional cream or food container.
Kano Model Plot
Kano's model can be represented graphically. On the horizontal axis we locate the attributes or function of the product, ranging from absent to fully implemented. On the vertical axis, meanwhile, we place the degree of customer satisfaction that ranges from dissatisfied (dissatisfied) to delighted.
As we can see, the basic attributes barely cover the customer's expectations, while the performance attributes increasingly affect their degree of satisfaction. However, the emotion attributes are the only ones that can lead the customer to a maximum degree of satisfaction.
Variants of the Kano classification
The classification of attributes that results from the application of the Kano model is not static, but can vary due to at least two factors:
- The passage of time and the advancement of technology : With technological advances, attributes that previously belonged to the category of performance become basic requirements without which it is impossible to compete.
- Consumer preferences : Not all consumers are the same. Attributes that are relevant to some may go unnoticed by others.
Application example of the Kano Model
For example, we can analyze the attributes of a modern mobile phone. Here the quality attributes would be the following:
- Basic : Make and receive calls, messaging, etc.
- Desired : Camera, synchronization with mail, surf the Internet, etc.
- Motivational : Video conference, solar charging, touch sensitivity.
- Indifferent : Color of the keyboard, shape of the letters or numbers, etc.
- Reject : Bad connection, interruptions, lost calls, etc.