The objective of this work is to design a Human Resources Selection system for the clerk cashier job at kiosks and points of sale in a supermarket chain. The sample for the job was made up of: Eighteen sales cashiers; Three managers selected from being directly linked to this job through the chain of command and Seven people with experience of more than one year working in a sales clerk position who, at the time of the investigation, were carrying out other activities within the organization In the job analysis, the techniques were used: observation, interview and questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by means of the SPSS / WIN statistical package, specifically frequency analysis techniques.
Human Resource Management is of vital importance in achieving the goals of the organization. One of its tasks is to provide the human capacities required by the organization and to develop skills and aptitudes of the individual to make it more satisfactory to himself and to the community in which he operates. Elements that can to a large extent be guaranteed with the design of a Human Resources selection system that nurtures the organization of the human material it needs, providing at the same time, possibilities of development and personal satisfaction to it. An efficient selection process, which Allow to fill jobs so that the organization can be operated competently both in the present and in the future, it can be the key to the fulfillment of the organizational mission.
Due to the importance that the selection of human resources has in organizational development, this research will cover from the psychological point of view the issues related to the selection of human resources, for the cashier-seller job at the points of sale and kiosks of a supermarket chain. In order to perform the analysis of the cashier-seller job at the points of sale and kiosks taken in the sample and create the profile of said job based on its analysis; Based on this profile, design a Human Resources selection system, which includes the design of effective recruitment techniques and a group of examinations (interviews, psychological tests and medical examination) to be applied to applicants for positions for the position of Sales clerk at the points of sale and kiosks of the supermarket chain studied.
To face their activities, organizations are divided into departments, divisions, sectors and sessions; however, close examination shows that these are not the actual components of a system. Considering the organization as a system implies being more concerned with objectives, missions, tasks or activities, and not simply with the internal division of labor.
The conception of the organization as a system starts from the recognition that every system is composed of interconnected parts in a complex way, in permanent evolution under the action of the external universe.
The approach of an organization from the systemic point of view leads to identify five basic resources (Chiavenatto, 1992):
- Production material resources : made up of buildings, factories, machinery, equipment, materials, facilities, raw materials, as well as the production process and technology.
- Financial resources constituted by capital, invoicing, investments. Loans, financing and credit. As well as the accounting and budgeting aspects, treasury and bank valuations.
- Marketing Resources: Named, sometimes commercial resources, include in their broader consideration sales, promotion, advertising, distribution, technical assistance, market relations, and marketing research.
- Administrative resources that integrate the different parts and elements of the organization with each other, as well as that of integrating it into its environment, includes all the organization's decision-making and command subsystems.
- Human Resources (HR) that include all members of the organization, at all levels and subsystems.
What differentiates an organization that is successful from another that is not, is, above all, the people, their enthusiasm, their creativity ; everything else can be bought learn or copy.
The fate of the organization depends largely on its HR, if its members are capable, they can successfully face the competition and make the most of the technical and material resources available, which is valid for any type of organization, then it can achieve its objectives.
Present in all the subsystems of the organization, the HR, constitute an essential element within it , the human factor has not been considered in the same way throughout this century, consequently, the theoreticians and practitioners who have dealt with it have not dealt with it. have valued the same way. Currently, when the concept of the human factor as a factor of production seems to be far away, minimizing its cost, it is tried to be considered as a "motor" resource that allows increasing the competitiveness of the company, achieving synergy between the economic and the social. In short, as a "human capital" in which more is invested every day.
The development and evolution of human resources within the organization has been approached from various approaches. Once its importance is accepted, the management of HR is of vital importance, therefore its study is essential. HR management is the action or effect of managing or directing HR; She is in charge of achieving the vision through strategic HR management in her own area. Leading is the process of influencing people so that they strive to achieve organizational goals. Managing is an essential activity that ensures the coordination of individual efforts to achieve group goals (Koontz, 1990).
Therefore, the management of HR forms a system of different activities or closely related interdependent subsystems, an aspect that causes any alteration that occurs in one, causes influence on others, those that cause new influences on others and so on. It is also an open system , since they are influenced and depend to a great extent on the environment, hence their contingency or situational nature, that is, they depend on the organizational situation: on the environment, on the technology used by the organization of policies and guidelines. current, the prevailing administrative philosophy, the conception that exists in the organization about man and his nature and above all about the quantity and quality of available HR.
Within the HR management subsystems, those described by Chiavenatto (1992) stand out:
- HR Feeding Subsystems - including market research, labor, recruitment, and selection.
- HR application subsystem ; which includes the analysis and description of the positions, integration or induction, evaluation of the merit or of the performance of the personnel movement (both vertically, horizontally or diagonally.
- HR maintenance subsystem . Compensation (salary administration) social benefit plans, hygiene and safety at work, records and controls of personnel.
- HR development subsystem ; which includes training and personal development plans.
- HR control subsystem ; which includes a database, HR information systems and auditing.
Sometimes HR management activities are grouped under the generic name of integration, as one more function of the administration.
An integration appropriate facilitates the task management and control (Koontz 1990). The administrative function of integration is defined, then, as the task of filling positions in an organizational structure to, after identifying the requirements of the workforce, make an inventory of it, recruit, select, locate, promote, evaluate, reward and train staff. It is clear that integration must be closely related to the organization, that is, to the establishment of an intentional structure of roles and positions (Estrada, González 1997).
We must add that when talking about integration, it is also necessary to take into account various dynamic factors, among which we can point out the ages of the people who occupy the different positions, the increase or decrease in the number of positions and the speed with which the personnel leave the job. company when they retire or for other reasons, as well as the external factors that influence it, such as the level of education, the prevailing activities in society (such as attitude towards work), the numerous laws and regulations that directly affect to the company, the economic conditions and the availability and demand of the personnel.
The HR supply subsystem is that it enables research and analysis of the human resources market (it determines the sources and recruitment techniques), it facilitates the selection criteria and quality guidelines and the degree of decentralization of decisions on the selection of personnel , as well as providing the officials with guidance for the perfect integration of candidates into the organization and the group, training and improvement for the proper performance of their functions and development of their careers, as well as opportunities for technical, cultural, social, functional and economic.
Recruit the best human potential available in the locality, select appropriately, taking into account not only the adjustment to the immediate function, but also, especially taking into account the human use in a process within the various areas of the organization and provide the plans and mechanism (centralized and decentralized) for the integration of new participants in the organization, are essential functions of the HR supply subsystem.
The selection of candidates is a complex task and the choice of the right candidate depends on its correct performance.
When addressing the conformation of the selection process, there are multiple criteria among the authors who state that the dependence of the recruitment and selection processes is of great importance, since the choice of the right person for a specific position is a guarantee that the tasks to him entrusted will be correctly executed. The process begins when somewhere in the organizational structure there is a request to hire someone to fill a vacant position or a newly created position, it involves a series of specific steps aimed at deciding on objective bases which applicants have the greatest potential for the performance of a position and possibilities for future development, both personally and in the organization, in order to be hired.
The analysis of the demand includes examining the characteristics of the position to be filled, the type of contract to be carried out (if it is temporary, with remuneration, training, etc.), the definition of the position and the possible hiring options.
It contemplates the recruitment and selection processes, the recruitment begins when the search for candidates begins and ends when the job applications are received; selection, when a person applies for a job and ends when a decision is made to hire one of the applicants. (Werther and Davis, 1992)
It can be concluded that the HR selection process is a technical process by which the organization searches, evaluates and chooses the people they need. It ranges from recruiting to hiring. It consists of a set of techniques and steps that allow us to choose among the recruited candidates those best suited to the existing positions in the organization, with a view to maintaining or increasing efficiency and personal performance.
This research takes as a starting point for the design of the personnel selection system, the analysis of the job position and the determination of its profile. The analysis is based on the determination of the requirements that the execution of the work task demands of the worker and on the study of the external working conditions. The profile is created from the results obtained in the analysis and constitutes the basis for the design of the methodology to be used in the subsequent steps of the Human Resources Selection System.
The sample used for the job post analysis was made up of the following: Eighteen sales clerks; Three managers selected from being directly linked to this job through the chain of command and Seven people with experience of more than one year working in a sales clerk position who, at the time of the investigation, were carrying out other activities within the organization .
Structured interview consists of eleven questions with the aim of obtaining information about the name of the position, its objectives within the organization, the functions carried out in it, its hierarchy and contacts with the rest of the organization's staff, salary they receive the workers employed in that position, as well as the physical characteristics and psychological qualities that its occupants must possess.
Observation of the job position in order to study the external working conditions (lighting, ventilation, noise, temperature and adaptation of the work regime) and record the most frequent actions and operations carried out by the sales clerk cashier in the performance of their work. The observation guide prepared for this purpose evaluates the frequency of actions in five categories: "high frequency", "frequent", "sometimes", "infrequent" and "never".
Questionnaire with the aim of specifying the requirements demanded by the position, consists of 34 questions (each one with three answer alternatives "necessary", "little necessary" and "unnecessary", to be chosen according to the degree of importance that is assigned to each characteristic or quality for the adequate performance in the position being evaluated) to know the degree of need that has for the adequate performance of the work factors such as: ability to calculate, to communicate, state of health and receptors, memory capacity and attention and emotional stability.
The data obtained by the different techniques used were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively, using the SPSS / WIN statistical package , specifically the frequency analysis techniques.
The data obtained allow to establish the following profile for the job:
Mission: Provide specialized attention to customers at the point of sale, collecting sales with the assigned collection box. Stimulate sales, guarantee the request for the best-selling merchandise and the security of the premises.
Content of the position: Perform the functions of the seller attending to customers, practicing the rules of courtesy.
Know all the products that are offered at the point of sale as well as their sizes, numbers, colors, prices and codes.
Efficiently deal with customer complaints and requests. Properly request the client for the information referred to and in accordance with this charge in the currency or authorized forms of payments.
Respond during the working day for the exchange fund and the daily collection taking the measures that guarantee the absence of surpluses or shortages in the box.
Comply with the guidelines that regulate the operations of the cash register. Carry out the inventory at the point of sale (daily from 5 to 10% of the products and monthly of all those existing in the premises).
Take care that the box is kept in good technical condition and keep your work area neat and clean. Comply with the standards of protection and hygiene at work.
Withdraw the exchange fund at the end of the shift and settle the rest of the cash for sales according to the controls established for the purposes that include: Make the cashier report daily (with the amount of sales and number of tips). Make a weekly general sales report and erase the memory of the cash register.
Preparation of the cash delivery bag to those in charge of transferring it to the bank offices. Ask the commercial unit for the goods that have been the most sold. Organize merchandise on shelves and display or maintain product prices. Attend simultaneously the sales and the inspections that go to the point of sale.
Operate and solve problems with the cash register, mistakes in their actions or mistakes in customer decisions.
Respond for the status of the basic means of the point of sale (fan, cash register, refrigerator and air conditioning).
Keep control of perishable products that are about to lose their commercial life.
Give entry and exit, through stowage cards, to the products that arrive at the unit from warehouses and other points of sale.
Issue the proof of purchase as well as the guarantees and properties of the products. Install the alarm system and fire system at the end of the workday. Evacuate the products from the point of sale in the event of atmospheric phenomena or catastrophes. Go to the point of sale if the alarm system is activated.
Responsibilities with: Teams. Money. Documents Records. Products. Public attention. Local.
Physical: Motor agility. Physical presence. Visual and auditory acuity. Discrimination of colors. Resistance to physical effort. Independent and precise hand movements. Adequate functioning of the circulatory system. Adequate functioning of the osteomuscular system.
Psychological: Coordination and psychomotor. Attention. Visual immediate memory (short term). Auditory immediate memory (short term). Intellectual performance. Emotional stability. Organization. Communicative skills. Numerical skills. Aesthetic sense.
Based on the results obtained, it is possible to design your own scheme for the selection of personnel, taking into account the contingency or situational nature of the same, as well as the specificity of the organization and the job position for which it will be directed.
The HR selection process is dynamic, harmonious and scientific, in it, the requesting sector and the personnel area find an area in which to achieve the goal of filling a position in the organization and incorporating a candidate to it.
In the development of the personnel selection process, it is necessary to assess the principles that must be met in order for it to achieve satisfactory results. Zayas Agüero (1996) argues that this process must be approached from a systemic approach, since in it a set of steps, methods and tasks are interrelated that condition its results, and it is much more than an isolated activity of application of a group of techniques and obtaining a result.
The selection process has an interdisciplinary nature , it is not the patrimony of a specific specialty, but rather a set of specialties that in an integrated way respond to the requirements of the selection system. Among the essential specialists in carrying out the process are psychologists, doctors and industrial engineers. It is necessary to act as a work team, to interact throughout the process and collectively, make the decision. In addition, the man must be valued in his integrity , as a whole, in his cognitive, affective, physical and social dimensions, manifesting his qualities in the context of his personality.
The following scheme is proposed for the position in question:
Recruitment may be oriented either internally or externally.
In the selection tests, the fundamental types of exams to be used are:
The interview: Provides the possibility of direct exchange with the candidates and will allow to know the reaction of the subject to the different situations that arise and to unexpected questions, as well as their main interests and motivations, and the knowledge that he himself has of the organization.
Knowledge or ability tests or tests: those whose objective is to evaluate the degree of notions, knowledge and skills acquired through study, practice or professional exercise, in relation to the requirements specified in the profile of the position and / or the possibility of developing them adequately in ways that are feasible for the organization from an economic and time point of view.
Medical examinations: to specify the aptitude in relation to the physical qualities required by the job profile.
Simulation techniques: from subjecting the candidate to a dramatization of an event generally related to the future role that he will play in the organization, a more realistic expectation is obtained about his behavior in office.
Verification of facts and references: the objective of this technique is to request and investigate the background of the candidate.
From the results obtained in the tests, we proceed to the decision stage
In this case, 3 options will always be valued: Acceptance, valid for candidates who meet the characteristics required for the position. Conditional acceptance valid for those candidates who, even when they do not meet all the requirements to perform the position, the organization may grant a term for them to complete them, or it may provide them with training variants or others that are feasible from the economic and financial point of view. spending time. Rejection, valid for candidates who do not meet the requirements and their completion is not feasible.
The candidate who is not accepted may be oriented to another position or organization, or be part of its reserve for new vacant positions.
Candidates may be referred to specific steps in the selection process, either to evaluate a particular requirement or due to the characteristics presented, which indicate that they have the requirements evaluated by them.
When notifying the chosen candidate of their appointment in writing, it will be essential to inform those people who participated in the personnel selection process that the position has been filled, in order to maintain the image of the organization, and, in the same way, not to feed expectations unnecessarily . It is not considered necessary to inform the causes of the rejection, nor to inform the candidate that he has not been elected, but that the vacant position has been filled.
The human resources selection system designed is made up of the following steps: ordering and searching for personnel, selection tests, decision, notification, admission, induction and follow-up. The simulation test of the real situation of this job allows to assess in practice the skills that the applicant has to perform in the job.