Piston Pump Hydraulic: What it is, types, parts and how a hydraulic piston pump works?

Piston Pump Hydraulic: What it is, types, parts and how a hydraulic piston pump works?
A piston pump is a hydraulic pump that generates movement in it by the movement of a piston. The piston pumps are of the volumetric pumps type, and are used for the movement of high-pressure fluids or fluids of high viscosities or densities.

Each movement of the piston dislodges, in each movement, the same volume of fluid, which is equivalent to the volume occupied by the piston during its stroke.

Hydraulic Machines

This is the most common application of piston pumps, which are used to pump hydraulic fluid, which then actuate the various mechanisms (eg, hydraulic motors, hydraulic cylinders ...)

High-pressure water industry

  • For pressure washers, usually with three ceramic pistons in line for industrial and professional equipment, and oscillating plate for DIY applications
  • For water jet cutting equipment, in which it acts as a primary impeller before the pressure multiplier
  • In high-pressure water sandblasting equipment.

Mining and construction industry

  • Concrete pumping
  • High-pressure water pumping for drills and tunnel boring machines
  • As a refill pump for oil reservoirs in oil wells.


  • As a pump for fumigation and phytosanitary treatments
  • As a transfer pump in warehouses.
  • As pumps for irrigation systems


  • To stabilize the microbiological content of juices.

Piston Pump Hydraulic: What it is, types, parts and how it works?

One of the functions that can never be lacking in any hydraulic system is to provide the fluid with the necessary properties so that it can cover the entire system.

Due to its characteristics, it must be a closed circuit, it must be able to withstand pressure, it must have certain fluid levels (depending on the magnitude and work required), and it needs to work at a certain pressure in order to fulfill its functions;

Here we will need the hydraulic pump.

A common example of its application: It serves to supply the necessary pressure to the water to rise to the top of a building (where the water tanks are located), and then be distributed to all departments. The water pumps are hydraulic pumps par excellence.

What is a hydraulic pump?

A hydraulic pump is a machine capable of transforming the energy with which it works (usually mechanical or electrical) into energy of the fluid, it tries to move. In other words, it provides the fluid with the flow and pressure necessary to fulfill a certain function.

What is a hydraulic pump for?

Since they are responsible for providing the necessary "thrust" of a fluid so that it can fulfill a certain function, we have many common applications:
  • Raise water to the top of a building (water pump)
  • Extract fluids under the ground (oil well or underground water pump).
  • Pump liquid by systems (as in refrigeration systems [air conditioning or refrigerator])
  • Hydraulic steering in vehicles (To make 'bending' easier, we do not make full force ourselves but a hydraulic pump helps us).
  • Movement and operation of mechanical shovels (in a Backhoe, in a Clark, in a dump truck [to lift the dump box], etc.).

How a hydraulic pump works

We will explain the operation of a hydraulic piston pump, which is very similar to piston engines. The basis of the operation of these pumps is based on hydrostatics, where a variation in volume generates a variation in pressure.

The hydraulic pumps consist of cylinders that suck liquid by means of blades that turn by generating a suction current. Then some pistons push the fluid, compressing it and giving it the necessary thrust to reach the pressure to perform certain work.

Parts of a hydraulic pump

  • Port of entry: Cylinder where the fluid enters the pump.
  • Pistons: Responsible for generating the thrust and compression of the fluid.
  • Drive shaft: It is responsible for generating the movement of the pistons when it receives external energy.
  • Outlet port: Cylinder where the fluid flows with the necessary pressure.

Types of hydraulic pump according to its operation:

  • Volumetric hydraulic pumps: It is the type of pump that we explained in previous paragraphs. They are based on the increase in pressure through the decrease in fluid volume. Within this classification, there are two types: reciprocating, rotostatic, or rotary.
  • Rot dynamic hydraulic pumps: The operation is based on the exchange of amount of movement, between the machine and the fluid. These machines consist of several blades that rotate generating a pressure field in the fluid that crosses them. Within this classification, there are three types: Radial or centrifugal, rotary, axial, diagonal or helico centrifugal.

Pump types according to the type of drive

  • Electrobombas: They are those powered by an electric motor.
  • Pneumatic pumps: Powered by pressurized air.
  • Hydraulic drive pumps: such as the Ferris wheel or ram pump
  • Manual pumps: powered by mechanical force.
  • Diesel pumps: driven by a diesel engine.

Differences between hydraulic pump and centrifugal pump

The centrifugal pumps are a type of hydraulic pump and which are machines, which convert mechanical energy into pressure energy of a fluid.

They are also called rot dynamic pumps and are the most commonly used to pump liquids of all kinds; coolants, brake fluids, fluids for steering systems, etc.

How does a simple hydraulic system work?

A hydraulic system works by sending pressurized oil to the cylinder for it to act. By acting, the cylinder can move large loads, either by pushing or pulling them or for any other application where great force is required. A hydraulic system works to do all this in a controlled way and with great precision, which makes it one of the best ways to transmit force in the modern era. A hydraulic system generally operates in a pressure range from 1,000 to 3,000 pounds.

  1. A hydraulic pump is activated by an electric motor. When this happens, the hydraulic pump generates the necessary oil flow for a cylinder to act.
  2. When the cylinder acts the oil is returned to the oil tank through the pipe.
  3. The oil is filtered by the Oil Filter. This is installed either in the pressure line or in the return line to remove any dirt that may flow into the pipe. This avoids failures or pressure losses in the hydraulic system.
  4. A directional control valve controls the movement of the cylinder, that is, this valve causes the cylinder to expand or contract.