How a drill works
The drill is a machine that emerged in the nineteenth century but that the principle of using the rotary movement to perform a drilling dates much earlier, more precisely from 2700 BC. This is why the important and interesting thing to know about the operation of a drill and its evolution until today.

How a drill works

What is a drill?

A drill is a machine with which perforations or holes are made in parts or materials. For this, he prints two movements in another piece in charge of making the holes: one of rotation and another of advance.

The drilling process is considered one of the most important in machining due to its ease of realization and its importance in the components that are machined.

What is a drill for?

As we already mentioned, the main function of the drill is to make a hole in a material with a specific purpose. But the drill also has other functions that adapt to different needs. The functions of a drill are:

  • Perforated: It is the main function of the drill where the hole is made when a drill or wick turning, comes into contact with another material and it begins to drill.
  • Percutor: It is when the hole is made by powerful blows. They are recommended when the material to be drilled has a great hardness.
  • Sanding: As we mentioned, the drill is a machine that spins another piece. In the case of wanting to drill a piercing piece is used. But if you put an sandpaper, the rotary movement makes the sanding process much easier. It can be used for wood, metals, among others.
  • Screw or unscrew: To screw or unscrew a piece we need to perform a rotary movement with the screwdriver. So if we place a screwdriver on the tip of the drill , the rotary movement is performed by the machine. They are drills of lower power and can be battery operated to facilitate their transfer.
  • Grinding: With a suitable head, the drill can be used to carve or engrave on glass or metal.
  • Sharpen: If we place a circular stone on the head, and pass the profile of a piece, tool through the stone while it is turning, it is sharpened.

How a drill works

There are many types of drills that adapt to different needs that are taken when drilling. But all drills have the same principle of operation , they vary in that some have more power and less precision, others use more advanced technology to obtain better results, etc.

A drill consists of a power source, which feeds a motor. In most cases this energy source is electric, but it can be pneumatic, hydraulic, among others. The electric power reaches a capacitor, which when we pull the trigger, lets the energy pass to the motor.

E l engine when it receives the energy begins to operate by rotating a gear transmitting motion to the drill. Then we manipulate the drill from the handle and put the drill into contact with the surface we want to drill.


Types of drills

There are different classifications for drills . Drills can be classified according to the source of energy they use to operate, and they can also be classified according to their function.

Types of holes according to the source of energy


  • Manual drills: They were widely used in ancient times. The rotation of the drill is done by man, manually. They are few efficient, and ergonomically bad, but they are cheap and serve to make holes in soft materials.
  • Electric drills: They use electric power to turn. It has great applications and there are many models. The battery drill stands out because it is not connected to an electrical outlet.
  • Pneumatic or hydraulic drills : They use the force of air or water to perform the perforations. They are used in industries where there is a compressed air installation.

Types of holes according to the function they perform

As we mentioned in previous paragraphs, the drill is not only used for drilling but also for other functions. That is why there are drills according to the different functions that you can perform.
  • Percussion drills: In addition to turning this drill, you can make straight movements in and out generating slight blows on the surface to be drilled. It is used for hard material surfaces.
  • Reversible drills: They can turn in both directions.
  • Electronic drills: These have speed regulators, so that they can be used both for screwing and for polishing or drilling.
  • Bench or column drill : They are fixed drills that generally have more power and are used in the workshops. Being fixed what moves is the piece.

Parts of a drill

The parts of a drill are:
  1. Wick or drill holder. It is the part of the drill that holds and adjusts the piece with which the work is to be performed. If it is drilling it will be a wick. In case it is for sanding, for example, it will be a circular sandpaper.
  2. Wick or mandrel adjustment . It is what allows the wick holder to hold the wick firmly.
  3. On / Off switch. It allows turning on and off the drill.
  4. Motor fan. Cool the engine so it doesn't overheat.
  5. Firing pin switch It allows activating or deactivating the firing strokes.
  6. Mango. It allows to hold the drill to perform drilling.
  7. Direction  of rotation button. Change the direction of rotation of the wick or drill.
  8. Input of electrical current. It is the cable that connects the drill with the power source.

How to choose a drill
When choosing a drill, the following characteristics must be taken into account .
  • Power: The minimum recommended power for a drill that will be used in a house is 500W.
  • Rotation speed : Drills with speed regulators are recommended if we plan to use it for different tasks.
  • Striker: In case we know that we are going to use the drill to drill hard surfaces, it is recommended that it has the function of firing pin.
  • Wireless: They are more comfortable and easier to handle. They are generally of lower power than those with cable.
  • Brand: The most recommended and trusted brands are: Bosch, Black and Decker and Skill