Cerebral ischemia: what it is, causes, symptoms, consequences and treatment

Cerebral ischemia: what it is, causes, symptoms, consequences and treatment
Cerebral ischemia, also called ischemic cerebrovascular disease, is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. It is a complex and dynamic phenomenon. If you want to know more about this complex disease, do not hesitate to continue reading this Transkerja.com article: cerebral ischemia: what it is, causes, symptoms, consequences and treatment.

Cerebral ischemia: what is it?

Cerebral ischemia is a cerebrovascular disease caused by a decrease for flow found in the brain. It is a certain decrease in blood circulation that causes insufficient levels to maintain a normal level of functioning and structure of the brain. In this sense, there are different types of brain ischemia, depending on the way in which this decrease occurs:
  • Global cerebral ischemia: this type of ischemia occurs when the decrease in blood supply is total, that is, throughout the brain. In this case, this decrease occurs throughout the brain simultaneously, damaging both cerebral hemispheres.
  • Partial cerebral ischemia: This type of cerebral ischemia, also called focal ischemia, does not affect the entire brain, but the decrease in blood flow is focused on a specific and specific part of the brain.
We found another classification of cerebral ischemia based on its duration:

  • Transient ischemia: it is a variable ischemia, that is, it can be reversible and return to its previous state, leading to a disappearance of said disease.
  • Permanent ischemia: it is a chronic and permanent ischemia over time; therefore, in this case, it is an irreversible disease.

Cerebral ischemia: causes

The most frequent causes of cerebral ischemia depend on different characteristics, such as its location. However, regardless of these characteristics, some of the most common causes of cerebral ischemia are the following:
  • Heart attack.
  • Extracorporeal circulation surgery.
  • Lacunar infarction.
  • Blood clots.
  • Plaques of cholesterol and lipids that clog cerebral arteries.
  • Carotid-dependent heart attacks.
  • Cerebral embolisms of cardiac origin.
  • Prolonged shock (any picture of these characteristics, regardless of its etiology, can cause cerebral ischemia).
These causes and many more can cause this cerebrovascular disease. However, it is also necessary to emphasize that usually, this cerebrovascular disease occurs, more frequently, in older people, since they usually have higher risk factors. Some of the risk factors that can become the cause of cerebral ischemia are the following: tobacco use, malformations, trauma, high blood pressure, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, lack of nutrients, brain tumors, consumption of drugs and addictive substances, brain lesions previous, heart problems, diabetes, etc.

Cerebral ischemia: symptoms

The symptoms of cerebral ischemia usually depend, above all, on the area of the brain in which the decrease in blood flow occurs, we must bear in mind that this decrease can occur in any part of the brain.

However, the following are the common and most common symptoms of cerebral ischemia:
  • Dizziness
  • Tremors / convulsions
  • Headaches
  • Appearance of hallucinations.
  • Deterioration of certain sensory abilities, such as blurred vision.
  • Personality changes
  • Unexpected appearance of a paralysis or a numbness of any of the two halves of the face or body.
  • Alterations in speech.
  • Alterations in the muscle tone of some part of the body.

Cerebral ischemia: consequences and consequences

Cerebral ischemia can lead to death and the onset of disability, from a mild cognitive deficit (impairment of memory, attention ...), to becoming a persistent vegetative state and lasting over time.

In the case of the consequences of cerebral ischemia, again, they depend on the specific area affected. In this sense, the involvement of cerebral ischemia in certain areas of the brain can generate manifestations such as paralysis of a part of the body (usually of one of the entire halves of the whole body, also called hemic body). Other consequences that can cause cerebral ischemia are facial paralysis, linguistic disability, and so on.

Cerebral ischemia: treatment

Regarding the treatment of cerebral ischemia, it should be noted that knowing what are the causes responsible for the damage caused by cerebral ischemia and, knowing their characteristics (affected area, etiology ...), is essential to decide which is the most effective treatment or treatments to treat the disease.

Thus, it is about finding the treatment / s that is aimed at protecting the affected brain tissue. Although various professionals ensure that the most effective and effective treatments are those that act, through pharmacological combinations, to promote neuro-restoration, based more on restoration than on protection. Understanding neuro-restoration as that phenomenon that aims to restore and modify the brain situation to restore it to its previous position.