Meaning of Human Resources (What they are, Concept and Definition)
In the administration of companies , it is called human resources ( HR ) to all the employees or collaborators of an organization , economic sector or a complete economy. It is also frequently used to refer to the management system or process that deals with selecting, hiring, training, employing and retaining the personnel that the organization needs to achieve its objectives.

The basic objective is to align the area or RR professionals. H H. with the strategy of the organization, which will allow implementing the organizational strategy through the people, who are considered as the only living and effective resources able to lead to organizational success and face the challenges that are nowadays perceived in the global competition . It is essential to highlight that people or human resources are not administered, but rather that they are administered with people, viewing them as active and proactive agents endowed with intelligence , innovation , creativity and other skills.

Generally, the Human Resources function is comprised of areas such as recruitment and selection , hiring , training , administration or personnel management during the stay in the company. Depending on the company or institution where the Human Resources function operates, there may be other groups that perform different responsibilities that may have to do with aspects such as the administration of the payroll of employees or the management of relations with unions, among others. In order to execute the strategy of the organization, the administration of human resources is fundamental, for which concepts such as organizational communication , leadership , teamwork , negotiation and organizational culture must be considered .

Therefore, the administration of human resources also refers to the policies and practices that are essential for managing personal relationships, as well as their needs, the selection of candidates, the application of induction programs, salary administration , incentives , benefits and communication within the company.


What are Human Resources:

The human resources of a company (HR) or human resource s (HR) in English, is a function and / or department of the area of ​​'Management and administration of companies' that organizes and maximizes the performance of the civil servants , or human capital, in a company or organization in order to increase their productivity.

Human resources outside the context of a function or a department of a company is synonymous with human capital, that is, the employees of a company.

Importance of the human resources department

The administration of human resources is extremely important in a company or organization because it manages the human resource, therefore the least predictable and dynamic resource.

A good management of human resources generates, as a chain process, the following benefits and advantages:
  • improve and take advantage of the abilities and skills of workers
  • increases the performance, quality and production of both the worker and the company.
  • The good interpersonal relationship between workers creates motivation and good weather.
  • the good interpersonal relationship between workers and HR makes everyone feel heard and valued
  • the renewal of jobs or the creation of new jobs are implemented harmoniously for all.
  • the jobs are occupied by competent people for that job and compatible with the work team.
This type of resources are those that give an identity to the organization, since they are what form the culture of the company through factors such as the type of communication and the existing motivation.


5 Key Functions of Human Resources

In many SMEs, the role of human resources is limited to the hiring of personnel and the liquidation of salaries. Other essential functions are vacant and can be a source of conflict. The main issues of human resources to carry out, even without a department in charge.

Is your company fulfilling the functions of human resources necessary to maintain a team of motivated people, who try their best and drive you to grow ? Some of the aspects that, in large companies, are taken into account when thinking about the people who comprise it:
  1. Recruitment and selection. Attracting the right people to grow the company is more than quickly filling a specific position. Planning in advance the needs of human resources gives time to analyze the position and the requirements to be met by who will cover it. It also allows to see several candidates and put them to the test through an orderly selection process .
  2. Induction. For employees who join the company feel welcome and can perform in their posts, an accompaniment is necessary during the first days. Transmitting the culture of the company, presenting the rest of the team, reviewing what is expected of the new employee and satisfying their doubts, is a key task.
  3. Training. People who are part of the organization may require additional training to better perform their duties. With the passage of time, in addition, it is necessary to offer spaces that keep them motivated and updated. Business chambers, unions, centers or private teachers usually offer courses applicable to business, on various topics such as languages, computer tools, sales techniques or social networks. A customized training can also be set up, taking into account the particular needs of the company.
  4. Remuneration More than the definition of salaries and their liquidation according to the corresponding conventions and standards, this function should contemplate that the compensations remain equitable, reflect results and help maintain motivation.
  5. Motivation and work climate. Developing the sense of belonging, leadership, initiative and commitment of employees with the company is a mission that should not be left to chance. A good working climate helps improve productivity, reduce absenteeism, retain staff, reduce conflicts and increase everyone's satisfaction. Benefits, communication, coaching, events and team projects can boost the growth climate that your company needs.


Activities in Human Resources

A human resources manager has several functions in the company:
  • Determine the needs of the staff.
  • Decide whether to hire employees temporarily or permanently based on the previous needs.
  • Select and empower the most efficient employees.
  • Supervise the work of employees.
  • Ensure the smooth running of the group and relations between employees.
  • Write the documents and policies of the employees.
  • Ensure high performance
  • Manage payroll and extra payments of employees.
  • Ensure equal opportunities among employees.
  • Combating discrimination .
  • Resolve possible problems concerning work.
  • Ensure that the company's practices are governed by several regulations.
  • Work the motivation of the employees.
In the same way, managers must work on their own interpersonal skills. m

Personnel planning

We can consider personnel planning as the set of measures that, based on the study of personnel related background and in the programs and forecasts of the organization, tend to determine, from the individual and general point of view, the human needs of the personnel. an industry in a determined period, quantitatively and qualitatively, as well as its cost .

Purpose
Personnel planning has the following purposes:
  1. Use resources effectively
  2. Collaborate with the company in obtaining benefits.
  3. Provide strategies and tactics for cases of expansion or reduction of the business .
The planning of personnel from a general point of view will try to ensure quantitatively and qualitatively (direct and indirect staff, administrative staff, middle managers and executives), the needs of personnel in order to support the general plans of the company.

It is convenient that in developing the visions, not only be studied under an optimistic development approach, but also analyze the possibility of an economic contraction that forces to take restrictive measures. The forecasts must cover all the possibilities that may occur. Its convenient flexibility will allow taking the necessary measures at every moment for each circumstance. Amplitude and flexibility are, then, two of its essential characteristics.

From the individual point of view, the planning includes the professional, human and economic development of the personnel, through the promotion based on the opportune formation, by means of the study of the aptitudes and the potential of each person, that allow their classification in order to said position.

The systematics to be used to plan the development of the personnel, individually considered, in order to insert it formed and promoted in the general plans of the company includes the study of the structure of the same as starting point, the study and drawing of the organizational chart to medium and long term, valuation or estimate of the people who form the template, ie, what is called an inventory of human potential, policy substitutes or replacements, salary planning , training planning and selection and study of posts of work.


Personnel selection

It is the first question that in relation to the personnel is posed to the company; selection to be given both for the entry of personnel in the company and to affect the personnel admitted to the different jobs to be covered.

In the personnel selection process, it is decided whether or not to hire the candidates found in the previous search. It is important to distinguish previously between professional competence, defined as the set of capacities of different nature that allow achieving a result; competition is linked to professional performance, is not independent of the context and expresses the human requirements valued in the man-work relationship. And on the other hand we must distinguish the professional qualification, defined as the set of professional skills with significance for employment that can be acquired through modular training or other types of training and through work experience. Therefore a qualified person is a prepared person, capable of performing a certain job,

This selection has different steps:
  • Determine if the candidate meets the predetermined minimum competencies for the job.
  • Evaluate the skills and professional qualifications of the candidates who passed the previous stage, through technical and / or psychological evaluations.
  • Assign a score to the evaluations made in the previous point.
  • Depending on the score, decide who will be offered the position.
When planning this process, it is important to take into account the importance of reliability in the instruments for measuring potential candidates' abilities, such as titles obtained, work experience, interviews, etc. As well as the validation between the results of the evaluations to which they were assigned a score and the concrete ability to do the work. To carry out the process of personnel selection, different tests and reliable tests must be designed where the applicant demonstrates whether he is capable of performing the work. In turn, these instruments must be validated in terms of the contents of knowledge that applicants must have and, in terms of practice, in the application of those contents. In this way it can be highlighted that it is not possible for a selection method to be valid if it is not reliable.


Recruitment and selection

As a first step for recruitment, a vacancy should arise. The Human Resources department must decide if it is necessary to hire one person per season, by contract, part-time or full-time. Once the decision is made, the job vacancy is announced to attract individuals with the necessary characteristics for it. Organizations try to attract individuals and obtain information about them to decide if they are interested in accepting them or not.

Recruitment is the set of techniques and procedures carried out to attract potentially qualified candidates capable of occupying positions within the organization.

The effectiveness of this process is reflected in the number of people attracted to adequately supply the selection process according to the present and future needs of the organization in the field of human resources. Currently, certain technologies are used to improve the process such as Artificial Intelligence.

Recruitment requires careful planning that consists of three phases:
  • Internal research of the needs, that is, what the Company needs in terms of people
  • Labor market research to discover what it can offer
  • Definition of recruitment techniques to be used
Internal research of the needs
It must be continuous and constant, considering the descriptions and job profiles considering all the areas and levels of the organization.

Human resources planning
It is the process by which you can determine the needs of personnel in the organization, try to anticipate what is the work force required to carry out the future activity of the Company.

Model based on the estimated demand of the product or service
The needs of personnel are a dependent variable of the estimated demand of the product, the relationship between these two variables are influenced by the variations in productivity, technology, the internal and external availability of financial resources and the availability of people in the organization.

This model uses forecasts or extrapolations based on historical data and is aimed at the operational level of the organization.

It does not consider possible contingencies, such as competitors' strategies, customer market situation, strikes, lack of raw material, etc.

Model Based on Segments of Posts
An organizational factor is chosen whose variation affects the needs of the personnel (sales, production, expansion, etc.). Historical levels of each factor are established. The historical levels of labor in each functional area are determined. Future levels of labor are projected. Work of each functional area correlating them with the corresponding strategic factors.

Replacement Graphic Model
It is a graphic representation of who substitutes who, depends on two variables: current performance and possibility of promotion estimating future success in new functions.

It is considered school education, professional experience, positions held, results achieved, aspirations and personal goals, etc.

Model Based on Personnel Flow
Describe the flow of people to the inside and outside of the organization.

The monitoring of entry, promotion, transfers and outputs allows a short-term prediction of personnel needs

Integrated Planning Model
Consider the following factors:
  • Planned volume of production.
  • Technological changes that modify the productivity of the personnel.
  • Conditions of supply and demand in the market and the behavior of customers.
  • Career planning within the organization to encourage and create areas where staff can pursue careers and professional careers.

External Market Research
To perform the External Recruitment we must segment the Human Resources market according to the characteristics of the personnel we are looking for. Each segment of the market has its own characteristics, caters to different demands, has different expectations and aspirations, uses different means of communication and can be addressed in a different way.

The basic problem of External Recruitment is to diagnose and identify the sources that provide Human Resources, these are called "Sources of Recruitment".

Identifying the appropriate source of recruitment allows the Company to:
  • Increase the performance of the recruitment process
  • Reduce the duration of the selection process
  • Reduce costs by being more efficient.
The recruitment process
Since Recruitment is considered a team function, its measures depend on a line decision, which is expressed through a document known as requisition of personnel.

The head of the department where the vacancy originated must fill out the job description, including in it:
● Job title.
● Location.
● Cause that generates the vacancy.
● Special characteristics that the candidate must meet (Profile).
● Salary.
● Benefits.
● Workday.
● Type of contract, in case of eventuality indication of the date on which the contract ends
● Signature of:
  • Head of Department.
  • Area manager.
  • Finance area.
  • General address, if the position requires it
  • Human resources when receiving the document


When the Human Resources department receives the personnel requisition, you should verify:
  • If the vacancy is due to a newly created position, before proceeding with the recruitment, the corresponding Position Analysis, Job Description and Job Profile must be performed.
  • The data entered in the requisition of personnel must match the data of the job description, if there is any difference should be clarified with the immediate head of the vacancy since it is possible that with the dynamics of the organization the position is a matter have adjustments If so, we will proceed to modify the job description and request the corresponding authorization signatures.
  • Verify in the "Template of Authorized Personnel" that the vacancy actually exists, if the vacancy is due to an increase in personnel, it will be necessary to verify that there is a budget so that the Company can comply with the Obligatory - Employer obligations.
Recruitment sources
When starting the process of Recruitment of Personnel we are faced with the dilemma of Where to look for the suitable candidates ?, the recruitment is not only to attract people to the Company, but to attract the people who possess the characteristics that our vacancy requires.

The place where we can find potential candidates we identify as "Labor Market" which in turn can be divided into 2: External Sources that refers to people who are outside the Company and Internal Sources those who are already working in the Organization or that for some reason we have your general information.

Internal sources
In many occasions the vacancies are covered with personnel that already work in the Company through:
  • Promotions
  • Personnel transfers
  • Personnel in development
  • Career plans.
Internal recruitment is based on data and information related to other subsystems:
  • Results obtained when it was selected.
  • Results of performance evaluations.
  • Results in training programs.
  • Analysis and Descriptions of posts.
  • Career plans.
  • Conditions of promotion and replacement.
Internal recruitment has many advantages, among which we can mention that it is cheaper and faster, has an index of validity and security, is a powerful source of motivation that also takes advantage of the company's investments in training and develops a healthy spirit of competition.

But it also has its drawbacks, since it requires that new employees have some development potential so that they can promote them at a higher level, it can generate conflict of interest and when administered incorrectly it can reach a situation called Peter's Principle.where the person reaches his level of incompetence, that is, we could be promoting an excellent boss to turn him into a bad Manager. When it is done continuously, it leads employees to limit themselves more and more to the policies and strategies of the organization and it can not be done in global terms throughout the organization because the synergy generated in the department that provides us with the element could be broken. Finally, with internal recruitment, one vacancy is filled but another is generated.

External sources
As already mentioned, external sources refer to all people who are outside the Organization, HR professionals use these tools or places to find them:
  • Job portals
  • Social networks. (Linkedin, Xing, Twitter, Facebook)
  • Universities and study centers.
  • Temporary Work Companies.
  • Consultants
  • State employment exchanges.
  • Professional Associations
The search for candidates in the entire population is impossible, so we see ourselves in the need to segment the population based on the main characteristics required by the person to fill the vacancy.

We usually segment based on:
  • General knowledge.
  • Specific knowledge
  • Experience.
  • Skills or competences
  • Socioeconomic level.
  • Geographically
Media
Once the recruitment source has been selected, we must choose the Media through which we will announce the vacancy (s).

If we opt for internal sources, the most common means to use are notice boards, the Company Magazine, notices to the staff, communicated to the Union, etc.

It may also be that the vacancy in question is covered by someone who is in the process of development, promotion or lateral change.

Before Human Resources change the person, it is necessary to discuss this possibility with the Supervisor of the employee and the person in charge of the area, both in the area where the employee is located and where the vacancy exists.

On the other hand, if we opt for external sources among the most common media are: newspaper, magazines, flyers, posters (posting), mass media such as radio and television, exchange boards, specialized offices, head hunter, etc.


Orientation, training and development

Training
Training in the workplace is essential for productivity. This is the process of acquiring technical, theoretical and practical knowledge that will improve the performance of employees in their work tasks.

The person can seek training in subjects that provide knowledge and skills development according to the need in their personal or work area and as a consequence improve time, skills and work skills. This activity will provide in the person the acquisition of a more prepared and professional profile, as well as greater confidence in the solution of a problem or work challenge.

Types of training
There are different types of training, basically three:
  • Training for work: it is aimed at the worker who will perform a new activity, either because of his recent income or because he was relocated to his company.
  • Promotional training: is for those workers who are in a position to move up.
  • Training at work: is aimed at developing skills, knowledge and attitudes in workers, in order to exercise their work activities in the best way possible, making your company / organization competitive.

Benefits of training
Good training can bring benefits to organizations such as improving their image and their relationship with employees, as well as increasing productivity and product quality. For employees, there are also benefits such as increased job satisfaction and the development of sense of progress. That is, training provides many benefits in the work context, benefits for the worker, the company and the country. For example:
  • It causes an increase in productivity and quality of work.
  • Increase the profitability of the organization.
  • Develop a high moral in the employees.
  • It helps to solve problems.
  • Reduces the need for supervision.
  • It helps to prevent work accidents.
  • Improves the stability of the organization and its flexibility.
  • It enables staff to identify with the company
Coaching
The coaching is a technique that has emerged to improve employee performance, working with them in different areas. The coaching methodically develops the skills and abilities of people, doing to improve self - esteem of individuals and the performance of the functions and tasks of the job. The coaching helps in various ways within the company, such as:
  • Develop the skills of employees.
  • Identify performance problems
  • Correct poor performance
  • Diagnose and improve behavior problems.
  • It promotes labor relations.
  • Provides advice
  • Improves performance and attitude.
Salary policy
The salary policy is the set of guidelines, based on studies and evaluations, aimed at equitably distributing the amounts budgeted to pay the staff in a given period of time, according to the merits and effectiveness of each.

In general, the remuneration received varies according to the difficulty of the job, with supply and demand, with the skill, responsibility and education required for its exercise. These generalizations are true, but they do not serve to apply them to specific cases and obtain specific rewards.

For this, several evaluation systems have been created:
  • Position graduation system: it means that several people, usually in committee meetings, evaluate job descriptions and graduate them in order of importance to the company. Then, the salaries of some positions within the scale are fixed and the rest are interpolated.
  • Classification system: involves the implementation of grades or classes of work in which the positions are adjusted. It is used little in the company and, on the other hand, in the Public Administration and in the Armed Forces.
  • Factor comparison system: It consists of evaluating five factors for each position: mental requirements, expertise, physical requirements, responsibilities and working condition. Once the monetary amounts for each factor have been determined, the salary can be determined by adding all these amounts to obtain the total compensation.
  • Point system: it is the most common method. The positions are analyzed by evaluating the amount of expertise, effort, responsibility, conditions of the position, etc., involved in each one of them. Instead of using monetary quantities to determine the valuation of each factor, as is done in the factor comparison system, points are used to determine these weights.
Incentives
The organizations offer compensation to their employees for the services rendered, that is, for the time, intellect and physical capacity they make available while they could carry out another activity in their place. The compensation not only refers to the monetary aspect, but also includes other incentives or non-monetary benefits that complement the economic remuneration. Depending on the type of company and its policies, they can be of different types, such as:

Monetary
  • Salary.
  • Annual payment only.
  • Bonuses
  • Percentages of earnings.
  • Credits
  • Assignments to births or marriages.

Non-monetary
  • Discounts on products or services of the company.
  • Rooms for child care.
  • Access to leisure facilities such as clubs or campsites.
  • Retirement and retirement plans.
  • Cell phone.
  • Uniforms
  • Increased licenses compared to those in the legislation or labor agreements.
  • Telecommuting
  • Promotion of professional growth through training.

It should be noted that the employee is willing to continue their working relationship with the organization as long as it is convenient, that is to say that they feel that what they receive in exchange for their work is fair and according to their needs. The compensation in this sense plays a fundamental role in the rational commitment of the worker since it is the extrinsic motivator par excellence and is determinant in terms of its permanence in the organization. However, it does not necessarily imply high productivity or motivation to add value to the company, issues that are more related to emotional or intrinsic commitment, that is, passion and dedication to what one does.

In this same sense, it is that the contributions that currently make the research specialists in the field of the use of compensation and benefits, invite us to consider some important aspects such as, the recognition of different age groups and their dynamic effect to want to impact intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the employee's motivation, through remunerations or incentives. Thus, when establishing compensation plans or strategies, they should be able to adjust to the particular needs of the organization, in such a way as to transform these plans into a sustainable means for attracting and retaining talent.

The motivation of workers
Motivation is a key tool for the efficiency of workers, since workers deserve to be motivated in different ways such as:
  • Utilities
  • Salary bonus
  • Social Security
  • Gratifications
  • Award to a prize (employee of the month).

The leadership
  • Recommendations to keep in mind with the staff
  • Get to know each one of your employees.
  • Give the value to diversity.
  • Work balance
  • Have a clear direction
  • Provide timely and balanced information.
  • Reward your workers.

Job analysis
After designing the position you must identify the tasks, duties and responsibilities that you are expected to perform at work. It also establishes the skills that the person must possess to correctly fulfill the tasks that are requested. This process is known as job analysis. This process is extremely important because it helps potential employees or the person already hired to know the essential needs of the company with respect to this position. This makes the company benefit because it hires highly qualified people and avoid problems due to lack of knowledge or skills.

In the analysis of jobs are two derivations: the job description and specifications. The job description consists of a written summary of the tasks, responsibilities and working conditions, plus a list of details. The job specifications are the necessary skills and details, necessary to successfully complete the position. When the description and work specification are very detailed, they help to improve the quality of service and take the company to a higher level of performance within a company because even though in almost all companies there are very similar positions, each one It has a different purpose, policy and way of working. This is why, despite the fact that each position is very similar,

If carried out properly, this tool can also be used for other processes of the company, such as establishing the economic compensation, checking if an employee is fulfilling the functions of his position, planning the training actions, depending on the guidelines that are established for work, or promote employees.

Is your company fulfilling the functions of human resources necessary to maintain a team of motivated people, who try their best and drive you to grow?